Solar cells convert photons into electricity based on the photovoltaic effect. These devices utllize a multi-layered structure including the substrate, anode, photoactive layer, and cathode. The photoactive layer of most efficient organic solar cells is bulk heterojunction, which is formed by phase separation between electron donors and electron acceptors after solution casting. Our approach to improve the device efficiency includes employing novel conjugated polymers and non-fullerene acceptors, controlling of the nanoscale morphology of the active layer, as well as manipulating the device architecture. We have extensive experience to probe the nanostructure with synchrotron X-ray, neutron scattering, spectroscopic ellipsometer, atomic force microscopy and many other tools.
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